Rotterdam's logistic success is based on its strategic location on the North Sea, directly at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas (New Meuse) channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta.
The rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the highly industrialized Ruhr region.
Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance.
Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk ("Schieland’s High Sea Dike") along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas.
A dam on the Rotte or "Rotterdam" was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat ("High Street").
The extensive distribution system including rail, roads, and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nickname "Gateway to Europe", and, conversely; "Gateway to the World" in Europe.
The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as it was then known, from rot, "muddy" and a, "water", thus "muddy water") dates from at least 900 CE.
) is a city in the Netherlands, located in South Holland, within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Its history goes back to 1270 when a dam was constructed in the Rotte river by people settled around it for safety.When completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m (147.64 ft).During World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Great-Britain, Germany and German-occupied Belgium.The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river.The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success.The city of Rotterdam is known for the Erasmus University, riverside setting, lively cultural life and its maritime heritage.