Mutual relations are expected to enhance the competitiveness of individual participants and the entire region (of the location).
Forming networks increases transparency and thus the region's potentials for cooperation, acquisition, and innovation in and between firms and their interfaces with academe, administration, and politics.
Case Examples from Nuremberg, Cologne, and Dortmund 4.1 Sectoral Self-Organisation in a Lead Location: the Nuremberg Initiative for the Communications Industry 4.2 Sectoral Development Promoted by Economic Policy: Media City and Media Park Cologne 4.3 Cluster Promotion Integrated into an Overall Development Strategy: Case Study dortmund-project 4.4 Systematic Comparison of Examples 5.
Interdependencies 5.1 Networking Beyond Old and New Sectors; Cross-Sectional Technologies 5.2 Regional Management in the Policy Intersection between Local Authorities, Regions, State and Federal Governments, and EU 5.3 Public and Private Sector Actors and the Role of Public- Private Partnerships (PPP) 5.4 Linking Urban Development, Economic Development Promotion, and Infrastructure Policy 6.
There is hardly a city, hardly a region in Europe without a cluster project, hardly a government that has not aligned its policy with a cluster or competence field strategy.
And the EU Commission is no exception (Sautter 2004).
The main focus is on identifying types of cluster in terms of actor patterns and on specific requirements for the design of cluster management concepts at the local government level.
Practical experience is assessed in the light of current regional research findings.
After all, political actors, especially in economically weak cities and regions, are under strong pressure to take action. However, he is explicitly sceptical about the direct feasibility of clusters "from scratch." Audretsch (in Bröcker et al.
They are often prepared to clutch at any straw that allows them to report positive action. 2003, 11) even writes about the "obsession of policy-makers around the globe to create the next Silicon Valley." The aim of this article is to give an overview of German cluster-oriented regional policy, to assess different actor approaches, and, citing a number of examples, to examine the preconditions for cluster strategies and their prospects for success from the economic development promotion point of view.
This changes the profile and growth prospects of the location or region.
Cluster members are suppliers or customers, competitors or partners along the value chain.
Then there are the big consulting firms which are involved in analysis and project operationalisation, and which have discovered a new business area in this field.