Dating for par Vordingborg

Dating for par Vordingborg
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The arrival of Scandinavian traders in the territories which later developed into "Rus" should be seen in the context of the Khazar and Pecheneg 9th and 10th century occupations of the area, which would appear to have left little opportunity for the establishment of powerful principalities by Scandinavian newcomers, at least in the open plain lands.

The earliest generations of the so-called Rurikid family are reconstructed solely on the basis of the sparse information in the Povest' vremennykh let or 'Tale of the Years of Time', better known as the Primary Chronicle and also sometimes known as Nestors Chronicle, the extant manuscripts of the Primary Chronicle which date from the 12th century should not be taken at face value as they must have been compiled from patchy sources of information.It is likely that the compilers exaggerated the role of Rurik's family in the 9th and 10th centuries, in order to establish a lengthy, credible history for the Russian principalities which were flourishing by the 12th century.Iaroslav I consolidated the dynasty's contacts with other European ruling families by arranging dynastic marriages.The countries included the Scandinavian kingdoms, reflecting the dynasty's sense of origin, its neighbours Byzantium, Hungary and Poland, and countries further afield such as France and several of the Germanic states.In particular, the alleged establishment by "Oleg" in 882 of the principality of Kiev should be treated with caution.

Nevertheless, the historical existence of Ruriks supposed son Igor, and Igors son Sviatoslav, is corroborated by the De Administrando Imperio of Emperor Konstantinos VII Porphyrogennetos, written in the mid-10th century and therefore contemporary with Sviatoslavs reign.In the present document, the rulers of Kiev are referred to as "Grand Prince" to indicate their position of supremacy over the other principalities and to reflect the fact that they appointed the rulers of these principalities from among the various members of their own family.The system of princely appointments from Kiev was first formalised by Grand Prince Iaroslav under his 1054 testament.This policy of foreign marriages was pursued by Iaroslav's successors but did not survive long into the 13th century.After that time, the Rus principalities restricted contacts with their western neighbours, and the Russian princes mainly sought brides from among the ever-growing number of collateral branches of their own dynasty.Family rivalry inevitably intensified: the sources record numerous examples of individual princes being dispossessed by more powerful rivals.