It is the shrub willows that are planted as a bioenergy crops, due to their ease of harvest and reliable re-sprouting. You can find a list of state and federally listed Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants here.
There are no species on the composite Federal and State Noxious Weeds list.
in Australia (Stokes 2008)), their establishment beyond the site of original planting is dependent on seed production (Stokes & Cunningham 2006).Vegetative propagation is highly localized, is not a good predictor of invasiveness in willow, and is highly dependent on riverine disturbance regimes (Stokes & Cunningham 2006; Stokes 2008).For the holes, the parallel and perpendicular sizes are roughly equal, approximately 1--2 mm (50--100 λ), and the holes are observed to travel equal or faster than the electron thermal speed. Based on the observations and scaling arguments, the holes can be shown to be predominantly electrostatic. This work was funded in part by DOE Grant DE-FG02-06ER54878 and CMPD Grant DEFC02-04ER54786.[4pt]  J.
Planting/Harvesting: Where is shrub willow grown as a bioenergy crop? How much energy can you get from an acre of willow?Another contributing factor to willow invasiveness is it ability for species hybridization, which should be minimal in triploid species hybrids.Willow seeds are very short-lived, have very strict establishment requirements, and suffer from very high rates of establishment year mortality (Dixon 2003), which further reduce their potential invasiveness.In a recently harvested genetic selection trial our breeding program, a disproportionate number of the highest yielding genotypes were triploid.Because they possess unbalanced numbers of chromosomes, triploids are essentially sterile and have been sought as non-invasive cultivars of otherwise invasive species.How vulnerable is a monoculture of shrub willow to pests and diseases? What are the best site conditions for growing willow? What are the emissions given off from the combustion of willow? Shrub willow is a perennial that can be grown as a sustainable bioenergy crop on marginal land.